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    Pigmentation refers to the uneven distribution of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. It can manifest in various ways, depending on the underlying cause and skin type. Common types of pigmentation include dark spots or patches, freckles, and melasma. Dark spots are localized areas of increased pigmentation, often appearing as small, distinct patches on the skin, while freckles are small, light to dark brown spots that can be scattered across the face or body. Melasma, on the other hand, presents as larger, symmetrical patches of brown or grayish-brown pigmentation, typically affecting areas like the cheeks, forehead, and upper lip.

    The appearance of pigmentation can vary based on factors such as skin tone, sun exposure, hormonal changes, and genetic predisposition. In fair-skinned individuals, pigmentation may appear as dark spots that contrast noticeably with the surrounding skin, whereas in darker skin tones, pigmentation can blend in more subtly but still contribute to an uneven complexion. Pigmentation often becomes more prominent with sun exposure, leading to further darkening of existing spots or the development of new ones, particularly on areas exposed to the sun’s rays.

    Addressing pigmentation concerns typically involves a combination of preventive measures and targeted treatments. This can include using sunscreen daily to protect against sun damage, incorporating skin brightening ingredients like vitamin C or niacinamide into skincare routines, and seeking professional treatments such as chemical peels, laser therapy, or topical prescription medications for more stubborn pigmentation issues. Consulting with a dermatologist can help determine the best approach for managing pigmentation and achieving a more even, radiant complexion.

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