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    Skin pigmentation is primarily caused by the overproduction or uneven distribution of melanin, the pigment responsible for giving skin its color. This overproduction can occur due to various factors such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or artificial sources like tanning beds. UV rays stimulate melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin, leading to increased melanin production in response to protect the skin from further damage. This process can result in dark spots, freckles, or uneven skin tone, commonly known as hyperpigmentation.

    Another significant cause of skin pigmentation is hormonal changes, particularly in women. Hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy, menopause, or due to certain medications can trigger melanin production, leading to conditions like melasma, where dark patches appear on the face. Additionally, inflammation or injury to the skin, such as acne scars or insect bites, can also stimulate melanin production, causing post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

    Genetics also play a role in determining an individual’s predisposition to skin pigmentation issues. Some people naturally have more melanin-producing cells or melanocytes that are more responsive to stimuli, making them more prone to hyperpigmentation. Overall, understanding the underlying causes of skin pigmentation is crucial for developing effective treatments and preventive measures, such as using sunscreen, avoiding prolonged sun exposure, and addressing hormonal imbalances.

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