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    Skin pigmentation can change due to various factors, leading to visible differences in skin tone and texture. One common change is hyperpigmentation, where certain areas of the skin become darker than the surrounding skin. This can occur due to sun exposure, hormonal changes (like during pregnancy or from birth control pills), or as a result of inflammation or injury. Hyperpigmentation often presents as dark spots, patches, or uneven skin tone.

    Conversely, hypopigmentation is another change that results in areas of the skin becoming lighter than the surrounding skin. This can be caused by conditions like vitiligo, where melanocytes (cells responsible for skin color) are destroyed, leading to loss of pigmentation in patches across the skin. Hypopigmentation can also occur due to trauma or certain medical treatments.

    Another change in skin pigmentation is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which occurs after inflammation or injury to the skin, such as acne, eczema, or cuts. In these cases, the skin may darken as part of the healing process, leaving behind pigmented marks that can take time to fade. PIH is more common in individuals with darker skin tones.

    Additionally, melasma is a specific type of hyperpigmentation characterized by brown or gray-brown patches on the skin, typically on the face. It’s often related to hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or hormonal therapies, and is exacerbated by sun exposure. Melasma can be challenging to treat and may require a combination of topical treatments and sun protection.

    Lastly, age-related changes in pigmentation, such as the development of age spots or liver spots, can occur as a result of cumulative sun exposure over time. These spots are usually harmless but can be a cosmetic concern for some individuals. Proper sun protection and skincare can help prevent and manage changes in skin pigmentation.

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