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    1.Sun Exposure: One of the primary causes of pigmentation is exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays. When your skin is exposed to sunlight, it triggers the production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin color. While melanin helps protect your skin from UV damage, excessive sun exposure can lead to an overproduction of melanin, resulting in hyperpigmentation. This can manifest as dark spots, freckles, or uneven skin tone, especially on areas that receive the most sun exposure like the face, hands, and arms.

    2. Hormonal Changes: Hormonal fluctuations can also contribute to pigmentation issues. Conditions such as pregnancy (melasma or “pregnancy mask”), hormonal contraceptives, and hormonal imbalances can stimulate melanin production, leading to patches of darker skin. Hormonal changes can affect melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin, causing them to become more active and resulting in pigmentation changes that may persist even after the hormonal imbalance resolves.

    3. Inflammation and Skin Trauma: Inflammatory skin conditions, injuries, or trauma to the skin can trigger pigmentation problems. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation occurs when the skin responds to inflammation or injury by producing excess melanin. This can happen after acne breakouts, insect bites, cuts, or burns. Even minor skin irritations or aggressive skincare treatments can stimulate melanin production, leading to temporary or long-lasting pigmentation changes depending on the severity of the inflammation or trauma.

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