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    The best ingredient to fade pigmentation depends on the type of pigmentation you’re dealing with. For post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), which often follows acne or skin injury, ingredients like niacinamide, vitamin C, and azelaic acid are highly effective. Niacinamide helps regulate melanin production, while vitamin C brightens the skin and reduces dark spots. Azelaic acid not only targets pigmentation but also has anti-inflammatory properties that can benefit acne-prone skin.

    For melasma, a condition characterized by symmetrical patches of darker skin, ingredients like hydroquinone, kojic acid, and licorice extract are commonly recommended. Hydroquinone inhibits melanin production, making it effective for stubborn pigmentation. Kojic acid and licorice extract also have skin-brightening properties, making them valuable additions to a pigmentation-fading regimen.

    In addition to these ingredients, sunscreen is crucial in preventing further pigmentation and protecting your skin from UV damage that can worsen existing pigmentation issues. Look for a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of 30 or higher, and apply it daily, even on cloudy days or indoors, to maintain the fading results and protect your skin from further damage.

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