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    Hyperpigmentation refers to the darkening of certain areas of the skin, often caused by an overproduction of melanin. There are three primary types of hyperpigmentation:

    1. **Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH):** This type of hyperpigmentation occurs after the skin experiences inflammation or trauma, such as acne, insect bites, or cuts. The skin responds by producing excess melanin, leading to dark patches or spots. PIH can affect people of all skin types but is more common in individuals with darker skin tones.

    2. **Melasma:** Melasma presents as symmetrical patches of brown or grayish pigmentation, typically on the face, especially the cheeks, forehead, and upper lip. It is often associated with hormonal changes, such as pregnancy or hormonal birth control usage, and sun exposure can exacerbate it. Melasma is more prevalent in women and those with a family history of the condition.

    3. **Sun-Induced Hyperpigmentation:** Also known as solar lentigines or sun spots, this type of hyperpigmentation is caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. It appears as flat, darkened areas on sun-exposed skin, such as the face, hands, shoulders, and arms. Sun-induced hyperpigmentation can develop over time with repeated sun exposure and is a common concern among individuals seeking to maintain youthful, even-toned skin.

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